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Embryophytes land plants. Feature Image: Parthenon, Athens, Greece. Image modified from original. Many technical terms used in paleobotany and structural botany do not form plurals in the standard English way by adding "-s" or "-es".
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- Terminology: genus and species
Synonymy and the abbreviations used in nomenclatural citations can by very confusing to the non-botanist. The terminology and abbreviations commonly employed in this database is defined below. When the identification of a plant is misapplied, rather than based on the original author's description, the name is placed in synonymy with the correct species name, and the abbreviation " auct.
Example : plants of Cerastium glomeratum Thuill. Therefore, the name Cerastium viscosum auct. In some cases, authors of a specific country will be identified, as in Parnassia caroliniana Can. Gmelin, in part. Autonyms are formed when a new subspecies or variety is described by an author. Autonyms carry the name of the author of the species and are based on the original type specimen; they do not require a new description.
Example : when Sagina nodosa L. Fenzl subsp. Fenzl was automatically created. A basionym has priority over other subsequently published names given to the same species by different authors. If the species is transferred to a different genus, the specific epithet is retained. Example : the species Symphoricarpos albus L. Blake, was originally described as Vaccinium album L. If the species is transferred to a different genus, the specific epithet will be retained and the name of the basionym author will be placed in parentheses before the author of the new combination, hence the alternate name of parenthetical author for the basionym author of a new combination.
Blake was originally described by Linnaeus as Vaccinium album L. A newer, alternate abbreviation for this team is Britton et al. Any combination that is not legitimate according to the rules of the ICBN. Example : Agrostis vinealis Schreb. Any combination that is invalid according to the rules of the ICBN.
Example : Diplazium angustifolium Michx. Butters, comb. A taxonomic rank applied to cultivated plant, referring to garden or agricultural varieties not known in the wild. The abbreviation cv. Example 1 : Callitriche verna L. Amendments, usually made because some aspect of the original description was missing or confusing, are meant to clarify the species description. Amendments must be made according to the type specimen.
Example 2 : Brassica rapa L. When more than 2 authors appear in a citation, the abbreviation " et al. Example : Conioselinum chinense L. Britton et al. Britton, E. Sterns, and J. This same method is used to refer to bibliographic citations in the text which are authored by several people.
Both authors should be listed in the original name and when the author citation is reduced to parenthetical status. Example : Muhlenberg's description of Stellaria longifolia was not validly published, but the name was later validated by Willdenow, who made the combination Stellaria longifolia Muhl. When the species was transferred by Britton to the genus Alsine , the combination became Alsine longifolia Muhl. Note that both names of the basionym author are retained in the parenthetical position.
Example : Cornus alternifolia L. The son of Carl Linnaeus, also named Carl Linnaeus, was the author of the species name Cornus alternifolia. An infraspecific lower taxonomic rank below the rank of variety, denoting minor differences in morphology, such as variations in the colour of petals or fruit. The rank of forma can be abbreviated as " fa. French: forme. Example : ' Acer ' is the genus name of the species Acer rubrum.
Homonyms refer to different species with the same name. The species names of the two parents, if known, are written in parentheses following the name and authorities of the hybrid taxon. Similarly, hybrid genera can be created by crossing species of two different genera. Dewey is a generic cross between Hordeum jubatum and Elymus trachycaulus. The rules set in the ICBN govern the naming of organisms traditionally treated as plants.
A separate code, the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants , deals with subspecific categories of plants, such as cultivars are clones, used in forestry, horticulture, and agriculture.
See Greuter et al. Only the first author the author of the name, not the book or article , is required to be cited, but we have included such names in this database to facilitate reference to the original publication, if desired. Example : John Richardson published the description of Stellaria laeta in the Botanical Appendix to Captain Franklin's Narrative of a journey to the shores of the Polar Sea , making the combination Stellaria laeta Richardson in Franklin.
Later, when Sereno Watson reduced this taxon to a variety of Stellaria longipes , the combination became Stellaria longipes var. Note that the " in Franklin" portion of the basionym author is not transferred to the new combination. Subspecies and varieties are both infraspecific ranks. This database includes separate search pages for plant names, authors, or publications. Only the earliest isonym is considered valid. Example : Minuartia rubella Wahlenb.
Hiern , non Graebn. The combination Minuartia rubella was published independently by Hiern in and by Graebner inThe combination published by Hiern has priority and is the legitimate name, while the combination created by Grisebach has no nomenclatural status, being the later isonym.
A taxonomic rank denoting a hybrid between different subspecies or varieties of a taxon. French: nothomorphe. A nom. Example : Trifolium agrarium L. The name Trifolium agrarium was misapplied to three taxa, so the name has been rejected in favour of the names Trifolium aureum Pollich, T. A name that is accepted according to the rules of the ICBN, but which would otherwise be considered illegitimate. Example : Callistephus chinensis L. Nees, nom. This name is conserved over Callistemma chinensis L.
Skeels, which is a rejected name nom. A name whose application is uncertain; the confusion being derived from an incomplete or confusing description. Example: Platanus hispanica auct. Example : Montia rivularis Amer. Gmelin p. The name Montia rivularis Amer.
Later homonyms, later isonyms, superfluous names, and tautonyms are various types of illegitimate names. Example 1 : Trifolium parviflorum Bunge ex Nyman, nom.
The name Trifolium parviflorum Bunge x Nyman, published in , is illegitimate, since it is a later homonym of Trifolium parviflorum Ehrh. Example : Astragalus astragalinus Hook. Barneby, Taxon , 25 :The correct basionym is Phaca astragalina DC. This taxon is a synonym of Astragalus alpinus L.
A name that was not validly published according to the rules of the ICBN, or a name that was not accepted by the author in the original publication, for example, if the name was suggested as a synonym of an accepted name. Example : Linaria vulgaris Hill, nom.
Many names published by John Hill between and were not accepted as validly published. French: nom invalide. Example : Festuca ovina L. Watson in King, nom. This name replaces Festuca brevifolia R. A name that is invalid because it was published without a description or reference to a type specimen or validly published description. Example : Viola repens Turcz. Although Turczaninow 's name , Viola repens , predates Becker's name , it was published without a description, so Viola epipsila Ledeb.
Becker is the accepted basionym. Example : Trifolium procumbens L. The name Trifolium procumbens has been rejected in favour of Trifolium campestre Schreb.
Horticulture is the agriculture of plants, mainly for food, materials, comfort and beauty for decoration. Horticulturists apply knowledge, skills, and technologies to grow intensively produced plants for human food and non-food uses and for personal or social needs. Their work involves plant propagation and cultivation with the aim of improving plant growth, yields, quality, nutritional value and resistance to insects, diseases and environmental stresses. They work as gardeners, growers, therapists, designers, and technical advisors in the food and non-food [manusia]sectors of horticulture. Etymology: [L. See Yard an inclosure, and Culture.
significant for purposes of horticulture, agriculture or forestry. (Source: GEMET/DUNSTE) Concept URI: all-audio.pro
As you may already know, there is a lot to learn when it comes to gardening: plants, bugs, microclimates, soil conditions, animals, tools, minerals, moisture levels, and so much more! Once one part of the puzzle becomes clear, you may realize you've opened up an entirely new can of worms to be explored. When it comes to the fanciful or whacky words below, you don't have to necessarily learn any of them to be a good gardener. We just thought we'd collect some of our favorites from the vast worlds of botany and horticulture. Take what interests you and leave the rest, then get back out into the garden. And who knows, you just may need a word like "Chiropterophilous" in conversation one day! Anemophily: noun Pollination performed by wind.
Horticulture is different things to different people. It is a science on the cutting edge of biotechnology, an art, profession, business, industry, hobby, way-of-life, and therapy for millions of people. Each of us comes in contact with horticultural products and professions every day of our lives. National Junior Horticulture Association.
The following are more general terms relating to plants and growing. Some are actual botanical terms and some are simply descriptive words you will likely hear in the plant trade.
If we eat the part derived from the ovaries or other reproductive tissue, we call it a fruit, explains Marvin Pritts, a horticulture researcher and professor at Cornell University. In response, many new at-home gardeners sowed the seeds to meet demand, investing in household horticulture. We hired a guy called Patrick Cullina, who was at the Brooklyn Botanic Garden, to run the horticulture and operations of the park. All the common garden fruits of Europe flourish here; but too little attention is paid to horticulture. The botanical garden and hot-house are on a large scale, and exhibit a favorable specimen of the present state of horticulture. The first contains the laws relating to agriculture and horticulture ; the second, those which refer to feasts and holidays.
Please note - in many cases these are best guesses. This is not meant to be definitive, but should be used as a learning aid. This list has been compiled from a number of sources, which are listed at the bottom. Clicking on the linked name will open the fact sheet for that species in a new window. Abelia xgrandiflora - glossy abelia after Dr. Freeman of the National Arboretum. Alnus incana ssp. Alnus viridis ssp.
Here is a brief explanation of terms commonly used in horticulture that are of Horticulturists and botanists alike prefer to use scientific (or Latin).
In Focus Flora Statistics Projects. Used to describe the fruit of the Asteraceae formed from an inferior ovary, following the definition given by De Candolle; equivalent to the term cypsela actinomorphic having radially arranged floral segments which are more or less equal in size and shape, referring to a flower, calyx or corolla. Also used to describe the type of anther in some eucalypts which is basifixed, immobile and about as wide as long.RELATED VIDEO: Names of Plants and Basic Gardening Knowledge Horticulture - Landscaping Tips
Horticulture is the science, art, as well as business of cultivating vegetables, fruits, flowers, ornamental plants, and herbs. In other words, it is known as the exercise of garden cultivation and management. The term Horticulture is derived from two Latin words- hortus garden and cultura cultivation. In the last few decades, the Horticulture sector in India has evolved as one of the most leading and influential sectors not only in India but in various other countries across the globe.
Copyright , National Gardening Association.
Synonymy and the abbreviations used in nomenclatural citations can by very confusing to the non-botanist. The terminology and abbreviations commonly employed in this database is defined below. When the identification of a plant is misapplied, rather than based on the original author's description, the name is placed in synonymy with the correct species name, and the abbreviation " auct. Example : plants of Cerastium glomeratum Thuill. Therefore, the name Cerastium viscosum auct.
Understanding the basics about the varied reproduction techniques used in the nursery trade, and the terminology associated with labeling and identifying different species, is important to choosing plants that will have value to birds, insects, and other wildlife. Here is a brief explanation of terms commonly used in horticulture that are of particular interest to the ecologically-minded gardener. The first step toward understanding a plant, whether it is in a pot in a garden center or a wildflower you have just keyed out in a field guide, is knowing its scientific name.