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Kalanchoe pinnate is a fast-growing unpretentious plant that has long settled on our windowsills and gained recognition for its medicinal properties. Kalanchoe has other names: tree of life, Goethe tree, indoor ginseng, home pharmacy. The properties of Kalanchoe are used not only in folk, but also in official medicine, however, each owner of this plant can prepare an effective medicine from it at home without any difficulties.


Introduction

family plant watering

With abundant watering, the insects move to the lower layers of the soil, crawl out through the holes of the pots and, quickly spreading around, infect other plants.

Control measures are difficult due to the constant habitation of the worm in the soil, as a result of which it is also difficult to detect. During a spring transplant, if the parasite is found, the safest way is to rinse the root system under a strong stream of warm water (up to 50 ° C).

An effective way is to wet the soil from the pallet without shaking it out or pour it on top with a solution of actellik (0.2%) or fufanon (0.1-0.15%).

Do this several times in 5-7 days to destroy all the larvae.

Shields and false shields

Close relatives of scale insects belonging to the genera Saissetia (pseudo-scutellum olive, pseudo-scutellum hemispherical), Acutaspis and others. Females of all genera form grayish-white or yellowish scale scales on host plants, sometimes being located in large colonies.

Under such a wax shield, they lay up to 100 eggs, from which tramp larvae emerge. They crawl over the plant for some time, and then stick to it, forming a shield. Thanks to the protective coloration, such shields can go unnoticed for a long time. At the same time, it is quite difficult to fight this parasite, since the shield can withstand almost any chemical attack.

The main control measure is manual scraping of the shields, followed by treatment of the affected areas with an alcoholic infusion of garlic, celandine, a solution of coniferous extract (1 teaspoon per glass of water) or kerosene. They also use a solution of laundry soap, zoo shampoo from exogenous parasites Bim or a household preparation for disinfection and washing of dishes Ferry.

In case of severe infection, the listed pesticides and preparations of the pyrethroid series are also used, of which the safest in room conditions are Arrivo, Cymbum (0.15%) and Karate (0.05%). In this case, the processing should be repeated with an interval of 1-2 weeks. It is possible to use a biological preparation Fitoverm. These drugs are especially effective on vagrant larvae [7].

Spiderweb pincers

The collective name of plant mites of the Tetranychidae family. Some species are called flat red mites or spiders, red spider mites, etc. Unlike those previously considered, these are very small pests, but the damage they cause is the most significant and unpleasant.

Females up to 0.3 mm long move rather quickly along the surface of the plant, breeding year-round, especially in dry air. They also differ in that they often settle on a fresh growth, where the cuticle is the thinnest. In places of their localization, the skin of the stems and leaves turns yellow and turns brown, then a rusty or brown crust forms, which not only spoils the appearance of the plant, but also disturbs its shape. At the same time, ticks quickly spread from the affected plants to healthy plants, causing great harm to them.

If spider mites are found, it is urgent to increase the humidity of the air by spraying. The affected plants should also be sprayed and doused with a stream of cold water. It is good to use the infusion of yarrow, garlic, onions, tobacco, potatoes, chamomile in the pharmacy. Among the biological means of control, the predatory phytoseiulus mite should be named, which willingly eats the flat heifer.

All disinfecting soap preparations of household chemicals and pyrethroid preparations used to combat the scabbard are also used against ticks, as well as the new drug Apollo that effectively destroys the pest.

Greenhouse flat-bodied

Flat-calf mite Brempalpus obovatus of the family Tenuipalpidae. Close to spider mites, the control measures are the same.

The general name of some genera of microscopic small filamentous worms that settle in the soil and parasitize on the roots of the bastard (cactus nematode, rootworm, etc.). In places of their penetration, characteristic swellings, called galls, are formed on the roots from plants.

Close examination can also detect nematode cysts in the ground. Outwardly, a plant infected with this parasite may look healthy, but growth retardation, as well as unusual swelling on the roots, most often indicate the presence of this dangerous pest.

As soon as the named pests of the bastard are found, safety measures must be taken immediately. First of all, cut off diseased roots, sometimes to the root collar, or, alternatively, cut the plant and root it again.

After that, it is imperative to disinfect tools that have come into contact with the infected plant and soil, as well as pots. All infected parts of the plant, the land in which they were located, must be immediately destroyed.

In the fight against nematodes, the antihelminthic drug Pirantel has proven itself well (it is inexpensive, sold in pharmacies). Its solution (250 mg per 10 l of water) is watered on diseased plants twice with an interval of 2 weeks [3].

In indoor culture, thrips emerged from open ground and greenhouse farms. Now these are the most dangerous plant pests. This includes representatives of the order Thysanoptera (western flower thrips (Californian), greenhouse (greenhouse), flower thrips, etc.).

The adult insect is small, 1-2 mm long, dark brown or brown, elongated, with fringed wings and a black head. The eggs are laid in the tissue of the plant. The larva is light yellow, 1 mm long. Adult insects and larvae suck sap from leaves and flowers, deforming and discoloring them.

Mass propagation of thrips is observed during the flowering period, when it accumulates around the flowers. When buds appear, it penetrates inside, damaging the flowers, and in the fall, when the temperature drops, thrips move to the lower parts of the plant.

In addition to direct harm, thrips carry pathogens of some dangerous viral diseases. Its mass reproduction is observed in hot dry weather. One generation develops in 2-4 weeks. During the season, this pest gives up to 12-15 generations. The only good news is that at an air temperature of more than 35 ° C, the development of almost all thrips stops, and with a decrease in the relative air humidity to 50%, there is a massive death of larvae, at least in well-studied species [14].

The following pesticides are most effective in the fight against thrips: actellic, fufanon (0.1-0.15%), as well as relatively new drugs - evisect and hotaquik. To combat thrips, you can also use the pyrethroid drugs Arrivo, Cymbum (0.15%) and Karate (0.05%). They are of low toxicity but can sometimes cause allergic reactions. The most harmless drug in this regard Fitoverm is an extract of one of the soil fungi.

Facultative (non-permanent) pests of succulents, usually living in open ground and getting into the premises from there. Another, more relevant today, is the option of aphids entering the collection from flower shops and import deliveries of potted plants.

This is a widespread group of insects of the genera Aphis and Myzodes. Indoors on succulents, peach (greenhouse, or tobacco) aphids, melons (cotton) aphids and spotted greenhouse aphids are more common.

Aphids are the most well-known pests that damage the soft tissues of plants. Damaged parts often wrinkle, bend, and dry out if severely damaged. Sometimes young parts of plants can be covered with a continuous bloom of larvae and adult females. Adults are wingless or winged up to 2 mm long, wingless larvae are about 0.5 mm long. Both are dark green, brown, or black.

The eggs are elongated. They hibernate on a young growth of garden plants. In spring, the founding larva emerges from the eggs. The larvae suck on young leaves, moving on to the buds. Larvae develop for 12-15 days. During the summer, aphids give 10-15 generations. In the summer period, winged settler females develop simultaneously with the wingless ones, which migrate, settling in new territories and sometimes getting into the premises. In September-October, aphids lay eggs and die [4].

One of the measures to combat the pest is mechanical washing with solutions of green soap (3-4%), laundry soap, Beam, Ferry and other detergents.

From biological control methods, the use of predatory insects that destroy aphids can be advised. However, the most effective chemical method is with the use of pesticides used to control other indoor pests of the bastard.

Other pests of the bastard in indoor conditions are red cockroaches, gnawing young parts of plants - shoots, flowers, seedlings. The fight against cockroaches is carried out both with the help of widespread household preparations, and with the help of the previously listed pesticides, including the well-proven Actellik.

Significant damage to succulents in the house and garden can be caused by snails, wood lice, slugs. They must be collected and destroyed in time. Raw potatoes, citrus peels, etc. can be used as bait for these pests. [7].

In the open field, they harm fatty people mainly herbivorous rodents, among them mice, voles, rats should be mentioned. They gnaw and eat various parts of plants, they can also feed on seeds. Methods for controlling these pests are widely known.

Concluding the conversation about the diseases of the fat woman and its pests, it is necessary to emphasize once again that the most effective way to avoid them is to observe those optimal conditions of agricultural technology (temperature, light, moisture and soil fertility), in which the money tree feels good, looks healthy, does not get sick ... It is also necessary to observe hygienic measures that prevent the spread of diseases and pests: disinfection of soil, tools, dishes, cleanliness of plants.

A constant preventive examination is necessary for the timely detection of sick or pest-affected plants and the prevention of contamination of neighboring healthy specimens.

It is also useful to periodically treat plants with a weak solution of potassium permanganate or infusion of calendula, tobacco, yarrow, etc. When pathogens or pests are found, first of all, a mechanical method of control should be used: rinsing with water and lubrication with alcoholic tinctures (garlic, onion, celandine, pine needles), as well as hot baths for the root system. And only as a last resort, you can use chemicals, remembering that most pesticides are toxic not only to pests, but also to humans, and some of them can cause allergic reactions.

Chemical treatment should be carried out only in a well-ventilated area, preferably outdoors, observing safety measures.

When keeping bastards in the open air, specific indoor diseases and pests are added to such specific ones as rodents and other vertebrates - birds, lizards, moles, as well as slugs (mollusks) and insects characteristic of open ground. Therefore, you need to carefully monitor the plants in the garden, and, if necessary, take timely measures to protect them [15].


Watch the video: How to Reverse Fatty Liver Disease Naturally. Jason Fung


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